Ocular surface disorders - and dry eye, in particular - is a leading reason for visits to eye care professionals. It has been generally accepted that meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a leading cause of evaporative dry eye, as well as being associated with aqueous-deficient dry eye. Yet, researchers and clinicians have lacked a global consensus on the definition of MGD, its epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management. Various systemic diseases and medications have been associated with the progression of both dry eye and MGD, as have several ocular disorders beyond those directly affecting the surface. It is in the best interest of patients for clinicians to be able to better identify and diagnose MGD, differentiating it from other ocular surface disorders, and to recognize the effects of MGD on the ocular surface, and thus initiate appropriate therapy. This CME activity provides expert insight into the Tear Film and Ocular Surface Society's International Workshop on MGD consensus report, offering practical application of its findings to better manage MGD patient care, particularly for those patients facing or undergoing ocular surgery. © 2012 American Academy of Ophthalmology.