The development and use of antiviral agents has progressed at a tremendous pace over the past two and a half decades. With the increased availability of antiviral drugs, clinicians now are able to intervene in disease processes for which supportive care has been the standard in the past. With the possible exception of HIV infection, no group of viral infections has experienced such exciting therapeutic possibilities as those caused by the human herpesviruses. From the use of acyclovir beginning in the 1970s to the recent licensure of cidofovir, the ability to affect favorably disease caused by herpesviruses is continuing to expand rapidly. These advancements, however, increasingly challenge the clinician's ability to maintain state-of-the-art understanding of antiviral therapy. Therefore, this article will review current knowledge of antiviral prophylaxis and treatment of herpesvirus infections in children.