Evidence suggests that the histone deacetylase, SIRT1, is a mediator of life span extension by calorie restriction; however, SIRT1 may paradoxically increase the risk of cancer. To better understand the relationship among SIRT1, energy balance, and cancer, two experiments were done. First, a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate; TRAMP) was used to determine the role of energy balance on SIRT1 expression and the effect of cancer stage on SIRT1 and hypermethylated in cancer-1 (HIC-1). Second, immunohistochemistry was done on human prostate tumors to determine if SIRT1 was differentially expressed in tumor cells versus uninvolved cells. Results show that SIRT1 is not increased in the dorsolateral prostate (DLP) of calorie-restricted mice during carcinogenesis. In contrast, when examined in the DLP as a function of pathologic score, SIRT1 was significantly elevated in mice with poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas compared with those with less-advanced disease. HIC-1, which has been shown to regulate SIRT1 levels, was markedly reduced in the same tumors, suggesting that a reduction in HIC-1 may be in part responsible for the increased expression of SIRT1 in prostatic adenocarcinomas. Furthermore, immunostaining of human prostate tumors showed that cancer cells had greater SIRT1 expression than uninvolved cells. In conclusion, DLP SIRT1 expression from calorie-restricted mice was not altered during carcinogenesis. However, SIRT1 expression was increased in mice with poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas and in human prostate cancer cells. Because SIRT1 may function as a tumor promoter, these results suggest that SIRT1 should be considered as a potential therapeutic target for prostate cancer. ©2007 American Association for Cancer Research.