OBJECTIVE. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the causes, waveform morphology, and clinical outcomes of high-resistance reversed diastolic flow in transplanted kidneys. MATERIALS AND METHODS. To identify patients with reversed diastolic flow, we performed a review of 5,089 renal transplant Doppler sonograms obtained over a 10-year period. Waveform morphology was correlated with surgical-histologic findings and clinical outcomes. RESULTS. Fifty-nine patients (33 male, 26 female; age range, 14-69 years) with reversed diastolic flow fell into three chronologic groups: acute group (six patients), transplant < 24 hours; perioperative group (34 patients), transplant ≤ 30 days; and long-term group (19 patients), transplant > 30 days. Acute reversed diastolic flow was associated with higher likelihood of graft survival (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test) compared with reversed diastolic flow discovered in the perioperative or long-term group. In the acute group, hematoma, acute tubular necrosis, renal vein thrombosis, and vascular kink produced reversed diastolic flow. The causes of reversed diastolic flow for the perioperative group were acute tubular necrosis, rejection, and renal vein thrombosis; for the long-term group, reasons for diastolic reversal were rejection, glomerulosclerosis, low cardiac output, and diabetic nephrosclerosis. The causes of reversed diastolic flow were not differentiated by waveform morphology. CONCLUSION. The causes of reversed diastolic flow cannot be distinguished by wave-form morphology. Patients with reversed diastolic flow < 24 hours after transplantation warrant emergent exploration because correction of treatable causes may lead to recovered function. Long-standing renal transplants with reversed diastolic flow are not likely salvageable. © American Roentgen Ray Society.