Simvastatin impairs ADP-stimulated respiration and increases mitochondrial oxidative stress in primary human skeletal myotubes

Academic Article


  • Statins, the widely prescribed cholesterol-lowering drugs for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, cause adverse skeletal muscle side effects ranging from fatigue to fatal rhabdomyolysis. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of simvastatin on mitochondrial respiration, oxidative stress, and cell death in differentiated primary human skeletal muscle cells (i.e.; myotubes). Simvastatin induced a dose-dependent decrease in viability of proliferating and differentiating primary human muscle precursor cells, and a similar dose-dependent effect was noted in differentiated myoblasts and myotubes. Additionally, there were decreases in myotube number and size following 48 h of simvastatin treatment (5 μM). In permeabilized myotubes, maximal ADP-stimulated oxygen consumption, supported by palmitoylcarnitine + malate (PCM, complex I and II substrates) and glutamate + malate (GM, complex I substrates), was 32-37% lower (P < 0.05) in simvastatin-treated (5 μM) vs control myotubes, providing evidence of impaired respiration at complex I. Mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation were significantly greater in the simvastatin-treated human skeletal myotube cultures compared to control. In addition, simvastatin markedly increased protein levels of Bax (proapoptotic, + 53%) and Bcl-2 (antiapoptotic, + 100%, P < 0.05), mitochondrial PTP opening (+ 44%, P < 0.05), and TUNEL-positive nuclei in human skeletal myotubes, demonstrating up-regulation of mitochondrial-mediated myonuclear apoptotic mechanisms. These data demonstrate that simvastatin induces myotube atrophy and cell loss associated with impaired ADP-stimulated maximal mitochondrial respiratory capacity, mitochondrial oxidative stress, and apoptosis in primary human skeletal myotubes, suggesting that mitochondrial dysfunction may underlie human statin-induced myopathy. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.
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    Author List

  • Kwak HB; Thalacker-Mercer A; Anderson EJ; Lin CT; Kane DA; Lee NS; Cortright RN; Bamman MM; Neufer PD
  • Start Page

  • 198
  • End Page

  • 207
  • Volume

  • 52
  • Issue

  • 1