Carbon dioxide as an intravascular imaging agent: Review

Academic Article


  • Patients with renal impairment and/or contrast allergies pose a challenge with regard to diagnostic evaluations. CO 2 may serve as a suitable alternative intravascular contrast agent in these patients with arteriographic applications, including evaluation of peripheral vascular disease, and venographic applications, such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt procedure, to name a few. Unique properties of CO 2, such as low viscosity, lack of an allergic reaction, and renal toxicity, have afforded it its diagnostic capabilities. However, certain properties of CO 2 also pose a technical challenge in terms of its delivery. Although it remains a relatively safe alternative contrast agent, potential adverse effects have been reported and exist. © 2011 Mosby, Inc.
  • Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Patel BN; Kapoor BS; Borghei P; Shah NA; Lockhart ME
  • Start Page

  • 208
  • End Page

  • 217
  • Volume

  • 40
  • Issue

  • 5