Class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) is predominantly expressed by macrophages, and because osteoclasts are of monocyte/macrophage lineage, SR-A is of potential interest in osteoclast biology. In addition to modified low density lipoprotein uptake, SR-A is also important in cell attachment and signaling. In this study we evaluated the effect of SR-A deletion on bone. Knock-out animals have 40% greater body weight than wild type. Body composition analyses demonstrated that total lean and fat body mass were greater in knock-out animals, but there was no significant difference in percent fat and lean body mass. Bone mineral density and content were significantly greater in knock-out compared with wild type animals. Micro-computed tomography analyses confirmed that total volume, bone volume as well as trabecular number, thickness, and connectivity were significantly greater in knock-out mice. As expected, trabecular separation was greater in wild type mice. The phenotype appears to be explained by 60% fewer osteoclasts in females and 35% fewer in males compared to wild type mice with a paradoxical increase in nuclei/osteoclast in knock-out animals. Furthermore, there were no differences in adipocyte number and osteoblast number or activity. The addition of the soluble extracellular domain of SR-A to RAW264.7 cells stimulated a concentration-dependent increase in osteoclast differentiation that was receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent. Soluble SR-A had no effect on cell proliferation in the presence of RANKL but stimulated a 40% increase in numbers in the absence of RANKL. We conclude that SR-A plays a role in normal osteoclast differentiation, suggesting a novel role for this receptor in bone biology.