© 2016 by American Society of Clinical Oncology. A 64-year-old man with a history of cigarette smoking but no significant comorbidities presented with hematuria and dysuria. Computed tomography scans demonstrated a mass and thickening of the bladder wall and no evidence of metastasis.His laboratory evaluation showed normal blood cell counts and comprehensivemetabolic panel with a calculated creatinine clearance of more than 60 mL per minute. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor and biopsy identified transitional cell carcinoma or urothelial carcinoma invading themuscularis propria of the bladder. On the basis of the bladder-confinedmass on computed tomography scan, the tumor was assigned a clinical stage of cT2N0. The patient was advised to undergo neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by radical cystectomy (RC). The patient had multiple concerns regarding neoadjuvant chemotherapy, particularly toxicities, especially the possibility of chronic neurologic and renal toxicities, and the potential harm from delay of RC, especially if the bladder cancer was resistant to chemotherapy. After a discussion of approximately 1 hour, he elected to proceed with upfront RC and extended lymph node dissection in conjunction with construction of a neobladder. Pathology revealed pathologic extravesical urothelial carcinoma, with disease in one of 25 lymph nodes removed (ypT3N1). Four weeks after RC, he returned to discuss further management with the medical oncologist. He exhibited an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0, normal blood cell counts, and a calculated creatinine clearance of more than 60 mL per minute.