A novel mechanism for the generation of superoxide anions in hematoporphyrin derivative-mediated cutaneous photosensitization. Activation of the xanthine oxidase pathway

Academic Article


  • Prior studies, both in vitro and in vivo, have suggested that cutaneous porphyrin photosensitization requires the generation of superoxide anion (.O2-) and various other reactive oxygen metabolites. No unifying concept has emerged, however, that unequivocally demonstrates the source of generation of these species. Since xanthine oxidase is known to generate .O2- in reperfused ischemic tissue and in certain inflammatory disorders, we attempted to assess its role in porphyrin photosensitization. C3H mice were rendered photosensitive by the intraperitoneal administration of dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE) (5 mg/kg) followed by irradiation with visible light. Murine ear swelling was used as a marker of the acute photosensitization response and involvement of oxygen radicals was evaluated using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The administration of allopurinol, a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase, afforded 90% protection against DHE-mediated acute photosensitivity in vivo. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase activity was twofold higher in the skin of photosensitized mice than in unirradiated animals. ESR spectra of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide-trapped radicals from the skin of photosensitized mice verified the presence of .O2- and .OH, while neither of these species was detected in the skin of control mice or mice receiving allopurinol. The administration of a soybean trypsin inhibitor or verapamil before irradiation also partially blocked the photosensitivity response, suggesting that calcium-dependent proteases play a role in the activation of xanthine oxidase in this photodynamic process. These data provide in vivo evidence for the involvement of .OH2- in DHE-mediated cutaneous photosensitization and suggest that these radicals are generated through the activation of the xanthine oxidase pathway. The administration of allopurinol and calcium channel blockers may thus offer new approaches for the treatment of cutaneous porphyrin photosensitization.
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    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Author List

  • Athar M; Elmets CA; Bickers DR; Mukhtar H
  • Start Page

  • 1137
  • End Page

  • 1143
  • Volume

  • 83
  • Issue

  • 4