The alterations of tumor proteome and/or in vivo secretome created by host-tumor cell interaction may be crucial factors for tumors to undergo progression or regression in a host system. Two UV-induced fibrosarcoma tumor cell lines (UV-2237 progressive cells and UV-2240 regressive cells) were used as models to address this issue. Hundreds of proteins including in vivo secretome have been identified and quantified via an isotope-coded protein label (ICPL) in conjunction with high-throughput NanoLC-LTQ MS analysis. A newly designed technology using a dermis-based cell-trapped system was employed to encapsulate and grow 3-D tumor cells. A tissue chamber inserted with a tumor cell-trapped dermis was implanted into mice to mimic the tumor microenvironment. The in vivo secretome created by host-tumor interaction was characterized from samples collected from tissue chamber fluids via ICPL labeling mass spectrometric analysis. Twenty-five proteins including 14-3-3 proteins, heat shock proteins, profilin-1, and a fragment of complement C3 with differential expression in proteomes of UV-2237 and UV-2240 cells were revealed. Three secreted proteins including myeloperoxidase, alpha-2-macroglobulin, and a vitamin D-binding protein have different abundances in the in vivo secretome in response to UV-2237 and UV-2240 cells. Differential tumor proteomes and in vivo secretome were thus accentuated as potential therapeutic targets to control tumor growth. © 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.