We present in this paper two imaging techniques using contrast agents assessed with in vivo experiments. Both methods are based on the same physical principle, and were implemented at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility medical beamline. The first one is intravenous coronary angiography using synchrotron radiation X-rays. This imaging technique has been planned for human studies in the near future. We describe the first experiments that were carried out with pigs at the ESRF. The second imaging mode is computed tomography using synchrotron radiation on rats bearing brain tumors. Owing to synchrotron radiation physical properties, these new imaging methods provide additional information compared to conventional techniques. After infusion of the contrast agent, it is possible to derive from the images the concentration of the contrast agent in the tumor area for the computed tomography and in any visible vessel for the angiography method.