The AML1 gene (also known as RUNX1 or CBFA2), located in chromosome band 21q22, encodes a transcription factor which heterodimerizes with the CBFβ protein forming a complex called human core binding factor (CBF). The CBF complex appears to regulate a number of genes important for hematopoiesis. AML1 is one of the most common targets of chromosomal rearrangements in human leukemias and has been involved in 14 chromosomal translocations to date. Here we report a new chromosomal translocation, t(4;21)(q31;q22) that disrupts the AML1 gene in a 12-year-old boy with newly diagnosed T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). This is the first reported chromosomal translocation where AML1 is rearranged in childhood T-cell ALL. By metaphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis, the AML1 breakpoint was mapped using recombinant phage clones, and shown to be either immediately upstream or downstream of exon 5. Copyright © 2002 Elsevier Science Inc.