Pathology of the brain is caused by the deficiency in tissue homeostasis. As the main homeostatic element of the mammalian nervous system is represented by astrocytes, these glial cells are involved in many, if not all, brain disorders. Diseased astrocytes undergo a variety of morphological and functional changes, including deregulation of calcium dynamics. To rectify undesirable changes in astrocytes and/or neurones that occur in disease, we postulate the future use of nanotechnology-based therapeutics. Carbon nanotubes emerged as one of the most promising advanced nanomaterials for use in neuroprosthesis. Recently, they have been used to affect morpho-functional characteristics of astrocytes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 12th European Symposium on Calcium. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.