Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been widely reported to display strong efficacy for cancer chemoprevention, although their mechanism of action is poorly understood. The most well-documented effects of NSAIDs include inhibition of tumor cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis, but their effect on tumor cell invasion has not been well studied. Here, we show that the NSAID, sulindac sulfide (SS) can potently inhibit the invasion of human MDA-MB-231 breast and HCT116 colon tumor cells in vitro at concentrations less than those required to inhibit tumor cell growth. To study the molecular basis for this activity, we investigated the involvement of microRNA (miRNA). A total of 132 miRNAs were found to be altered in response to SS treatment, including miR-10b, miR-17, miR-21 and miR-9, which have been previously implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis. We confirmed that these miRNA can stimulate tumor cell invasion and show that SS can attenuate their invasive effects by downregulating their expression. Employing luciferase and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, NF-κB was found to bind the promoters of all four miRNAs to suppress their expression at the transcriptional level. We show that SS can inhibit the translocation of NF-κB to the nucleus by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKKβ and IκB. Analysis of the promoter sequences of the miRNAs suppressed by SS revealed that 81 of 115 sequences contained NF-κB-binding sites. These results show that SS can inhibit tumor cell invasion by suppressing NF-κB-mediated transcription of miRNAs. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.