Genetic immunization has initiated a new era of vaccine research, which provides a stable and long-lived source of the protein antigen. Such a vaccine is a simple, robust, and effective means of eliciting both antibody- and cell-mediated immune responses compared with protein or peptide vaccines. Although naked DNA vaccines are relatively simple to produce and handle without significant toxicity or host immunity, those using viral vectors have shown greater efficacy in gene transfer and in inducing both protective and therapeutic immunity in preclinical models. However, clinical translation of results obtained in animal studies with viral vectors has not met with anticipated success so far because of inherent limitations of the vector-associated immunity and antigen specificity. Thus, understanding the requirements for the elicitation of target-specific immunity in host requires that a major cellular arm be unraveled, and modifications of the existing viral vectors and testing of newer ones encompass the technological arm of vaccine research. In this article, I give a comprehensive account of the potential of adenoassociated virus, a nonpathogenic human parvovirus in vaccine development.