Aims: To relate nuclear magnetic resonance lipoprotein subclass profiles (NMR-LSP) and other lipoprotein-related factors with carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in Type 1 diabetes. Methods: Lipoprotein-related factors were determined in sera (obtained in 1997-1999) from 428 female [age 39 ± 7 years (mean ± sd)] and 540 male (age 40 ± 7 years) Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT)/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) participants. NMR quanti-fies chylomicrons, three very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) subclasses, intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), three low-density lipoprotein (LDL) subclasses, two high-density lipoprotein (HDL) subclasses, mean VLDL, LDL and HDL size, and LDL particle concentration. Conventional lipids, ApoA1, ApoB and Lp(a) and in vitro LDL oxidizibility were also measured. IMT was determined (in 1994-1995) using high-resolution B-mode ultrasound. Relationships between IMT and lipoproteins were analysed by multiple linear regression, controlling for age, diabetes-related factors, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Results: IMT associations with lipoproteins were stronger for the internal than the common carotid artery, predominantly involving LDL. Internal carotid IMT was positively (P < 0.05) associated with NMR-based LDL subclasses and particle concentration, and with conventional LDL-cholesterol and ApoB in both genders. Common carotid IMT was associated, in men only, with large VLDL, IDL, conventional LDL cholesterol and ApoB. Conclusions: NMR-LSP reveals significant associations with carotid IMT in Type 1 diabetic patients, even 4 years after IMT measurement. NMR-LSP may aid early identification of high-risk diabetic patients and facilitate monitoring of interventions. Longer DCCT/EDIC cohort follow-up will yield CVD events and IMT progression, permitting more accurate assessment of pre-morbid lipoprotein profiles as determinants of cardiovascular risk in Type 1 diabetes. © 2006 The Authors.