Fatty liver disease (FLD), associated with chronic alcohol consumption or obesity, is a serious medical problem. Strong evidence indicates that oxidative stress and dysregulation of redox-sensitive signaling pathways are central to the pathobiology of FLD. Herein, this Forum summarizes current knowledge regarding mechanisms of FLD from both clinical and experimental studies. Special emphasis is given to the role of redox biology disturbances in the initiation and progression of FLD from both chronic alcohol consumption and obesity. Focus areas in this Forum include discussions on the (i) multi-hit hypothesis; (ii) interaction of adipokines and redox signaling pathways; (iii) role of sub-cellular organelle systems (i.e., endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria); and (iv) contribution of the innate immune system, in FLD. A state-of-the-art discussion is also included highlighting key lessons learned from experimental studies using rodent models of FLD. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.