Purpose: Several studies have examined the prognostic value of the codon 72 polymorphism of the p53 gene in colorectal adenocarcinoma, but none have addressed patient race/ethnicity. Therefore, this study assessed the prognostic value of this polymorphism in African American and Caucasian colorectal adenocarcinoma patients separately. Experimental Design: Colorectal adenocarcinomas from 137 African Americans and 236 non-Hispanic Caucasians were assessed forp53 mutations and genotyped for the codon 72 polymorphism. The phenotypes were correlated with p53 mutational status, clinicopathologic features, and patient survival using the × 2 test and Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression models. Results: The incidence of p53 mutations was similar in African American and Caucasian patients (50% versus 54%, respectively); however, the homozygous Pro72 allele frequency was higher in African Americans (17%) as compared with Caucasians (7%). In contrast, the homozygous Arg72 allele frequency was higher in Caucasians (36%) than in African Americans (19%). In African Americans but not Caucasians, the Pro/Pro phenotype significantly correlated with a higher incidence of missense p53 mutations and with nodal metastasis. African Americans, but not Caucasians, with the Pro/Pro phenotype had significantly higher mortality (log-rank P = 0.005 versus. P = 0.886) and risk of death due to colorectal adenocarcinoma (hazard ratio, 2.15; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-4.53 versus hazard ratio, 1.60; 95% confidence interval, 0.69-3.18) than those with the phenotype Arg/Arg orArg/Pro. Conclusions: The higher frequency of the Pro/Pro phenotype of p53 in African American patients with colorectal adenocarcinoma is associated with an increased incidence of p53 mutations, with advanced tumor stage, and with short survival. © 2009 American Association for Cancer Research.