miRNAs serve as micromanagers, negatively regulating gene expression. Since altered miRNA expression is implicated in the pathobiology of various cancers, including colorectal cancers (CRCs), these molecules serve as potential therapeutic targets. Manipulation of miRNAs may offer an alternative therapy for chemo- and radio-resistant CRCs. For CRC patients, miRNA expression patterns can be used for diagnosis, and to predict prognosis and efficacy of therapy. This article describes the methodological approaches for miRNA measurement, their function in the pathobiology of CRCs and their potential clinical utility. © 2010 Future Medicine Ltd.