In an attempt to develop an immunization strategy to induce mucosal and circulatory antibodies against SIV antigens, we have investigated the potential of attenuated recombinant vaccinia virus to deliver SIV antigens (gp160 of SIVmac239) to mucosal surfaces of mice. After systemic or mucosal (intragastric, intranasal, or intrarectal) immunization with vaccinia virus- SIV Env recombinants the immune responses against the envelope glycoprotein of SIV, as well as against vaccinia virus antigens, were assessed by ELISA of serum, saliva, and intestinal and vaginal secretions. All immunization routes induced specific antibody titers against gp160 in both serum and external secretions. Recall responses against SIV were found to be acquired after administration of SIVmac239 Env and Gag antigens in a virus-like particle (VLP) form by the same mucosal routes as those used for the priming with recombinant vaccinia virus. The results obtained demonstrate the potential of vaccinia virus recombinants to elicit a primary immune response at mucosal surfaces, which could be enhanced by delivering the same antigen in the fore of VLPs.