A novel regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) has been isolated from a highly purified population of mouse long-term hematopoietic stem cells, and designated RGS18. It has 234 amino acids consisting of a central RGS box and short divergent NH2 and COOH termini. The calculated molecular weight of RGS18 is 27,610 and the isoelectric point is 8.63. Mouse RGS18 is expressed from a single gene and shows tissue specific distribution. It is most highly expressed in bone marrow followed by fetal liver, spleen, and then lung. In bone marrow, RGS18 level is highest in long-term and short-term hematopoietic stem cells, and is decreased as they differentiate into more committed multiple progenitors. The human RGS18 ortholog has a tissue-specific expression pattern similar to that of mouse RGS18. Purified RGS18 interacts with the α subunit of both Gi and Gq subfamilies. The results of in vitro GTPase single-turn-over assays using Gαi indicated that RGS18 accelerates the intrinsic GTPase activity of Gαi. Transient overexpression of RGS18 attenuated inositol phosphates production via angiotensin receptor and transcriptional activation through cAMP-responsive element via M1 muscarinic receptor. This suggests RGS18 can act on Gq-mediated signaling pathways in vivo.