In addition to the immune system, HIV also affects the nervous system. Even with highly active antiretroviral therapy helping reduce the impact of HIV on the body and brain, approximately 50% of individuals with HIV experience cognitive problems. As people age with HIV, there is growing concern that they will be at increased risk of developing cognitive problems that may have an impact on their everyday functioning (e.g., medication adherence) and quality of life. Unfortunately, HIV-related stigma, social withdrawal, and depression, which are common to the HIV experience, can also have direct and indirect negative consequences on cognition. Research and practice implications concerning these relationships are posited. © SLACK Incorporated.