CD38 controls the chemotaxis of leukocytes to some, but not all, chemokines, suggesting that chemokine receptor signaling in leukocytes is more diverse than previously appreciated. To determine the basis for this signaling heterogeneity, we examined the chemokine receptors that signal in a CD38-dependent manner and identified a novel "alternative" chemokine receptor signaling pathway. Similar to the "classical" signaling pathway, the alternative chemokine receptor pathway is activated by Gαi2-containing Gi proteins. However, unlike the classical pathway, the alternative pathway is also dependent on the Gq class of G proteins. We show that Gαq-deficient neutrophils and dendritic cells (DCs) make defective calcium and chemotactic responses upon stimulation with N-formyl methionyl leucyl phenylalanine and CC chemokine ligand (CCL) 3 (neutrophils), or upon stimulation with CCL2, CCL19, CCL21, and CXC chemokine ligand (CXCL) 12 (DCs). In contrast, Gαq-deficient T cell responses to CXCL12 and CCL19 remain intact. Thus, the alternative chemokine receptor pathway controls the migration of only a subset of cells. Regardless, the novel alternative chemokine receptor signaling pathway appears to be critically important for the initiation of inflammatory responses, as Gαq is required for the migration of DCs from the skin to draining lymph nodes after fluorescein isothiocyanate sensitization and the emigration of monocytes from the bone marrow into inflamed skin after contact sensitization. JEM © The Rockefeller University Press.