B1b B cells generate a novel form of memory and provide Ab mediated-protection to persisting bacterial pathogens. To understand how B1b B cells establish memory to polysaccharide Ags, we studied an oligoclonal B cell response to α-1,3 dextran (DEX) expressed on Enterobacter cloacae. B cells specific for DEX enrich in the marginal zone (MZ) and B1b B cell populations. After E. cloacae immunization, MZ B cells were responsible for the generation of initial peak DEX-specific Ab titers, whereas, DEXspecific B1b B cells expanded and played an important role in boosted production of DEX-specific Ab titers upon E. cloacae rechallenge. Cell transfer experiments demonstrate that B1b B cells possess the capacity for both robust proliferation and plasma cell differentiation, thus distinguishing themselves from MZ B cells, which uniformly commit to plasma cell differentiation. These results define B1b B cells as the principal reservoir for memory to bacterial-associated polysaccharide Ags. Copyright © 2009 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.