Hybridoma cell lines producing monoclonal antibodies (MAb) against a 200 kD antigen found circulating in the sera of microfilaremic patients infected with Wuchereria bancrofti were obtained by immunizing mice with a partially purified antigen preparation. A sensitive Mab (CA101)-based ELISA for measuring circulating parasite antigen was capable of detecting antigen in the sera of 93% of patients with microfilaremia, 46% of those with lymphatic obstruction, and 56% of patients with tropical pulmonary eosinophilia syndrome. Circulating antigen was absent from sera of normal controls, and 'false positives' were recorded in only two of 17 patients with nonfilarial helminth infections. By ELISA and immunoblot analysis, it was shown that three of the monoclonals raised to this 200 kD antigen were directed to epitopes of phosphocholine (PC). Two MAb (CA86, CA101) were identified as having the T15 idiotype previously associated with antibodies to the PC of pneumococcal teichoic acid; one was untypeable. All three of these anti-PC MAb reacted with adult, microfilaria, and larval antigen preparations, and by immunoblotting showed multiple banding patterns that indicated the presence of PC determinants on many different antigen molecules. On the other hand, target antigens of CA101 which were found in the circulation of infected patients were limited to three species with apparent m.w. of 200, 160, and 78 kD. The 200 kD antigen was seen more frequently than the other two antigens. Other T15 anti-PC MAb derived from mice not immunized with filarial antigen showed similar patterns of reactivity with circulating filarial antigen.