Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major respiratory mucosal pathogen affecting infants and children. Although a polysaccharide-based vaccine has been useful in adult populations, it does not elicit protective immunity in infants and young children. Pneumococcal surface protein A (PspA) is a highly immunogenic surface protein produced by all strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Previous studies have shown that systemic immunization of mice with PspA can elicit protective immunity against fatal pneumococcal infection. In this study, we demonstrated that oral immunization with PspA could elicit protective immune responses against pneumococcal infection. When mice were orally immunized with PspA alone, low levels of PspA-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) responses were induced in serum; none was induced in secretion. On the other hand, when PspA was given orally with the mucosal adjuvant cholera toxin (CT), significant levels of IgG and IgA anti-PspA responses were induced in serum. The major IgG subclass was IgG1, followed by IgG2b, a profile of antibody response supported by Th2-type cells. In addition, all mice orally immunized with PspA and CT were protected from the lethal challenge with capsular serotype 3 S. pneumoniae A66. These results suggested that an oral PspA vaccine may be a useful means of preventing pneumococcal disease.