We characterized antibody responses to two Streptococcus pneumoniae surface proteins, PspA and PsaA, in 14 adults over 50 years of age hospitalized with invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD), and in two groups of age-matched controls (18 patients with invasive disease due to other microorganisms and 35 patients hospitalized for non infectious conditions). All patients with IPD and all control subjects had detectable antibodies to both proteins on hospital admission. Three weeks later, the geometric mean concentrations of antibodies to PspA and PsaA in IPD patients were respectively 10 and 25 times higher than on admission. In contrast, acute and convalescent antibody levels were similar in control patients with invasive diseases due to other microorganisms. © 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.