Lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce human CD34+ cells that mediate long-term engraftment of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. However, hematopoiesis in these animals is abnormal. Typically, 95% of the human cells in peripheral blood are B lymphocytes. To determine whether lentiviral vectors efficiently transduce stem cells that maintain normal hematopoiesis in vivo, we isolated Sca-1+c-Kit+Lin- bone marrow cells from mice without 5-fluorouracil treatment, and transduced these cells in the absence of cytokine stimulation with a novel lentiviral vector containing a GFP (green flourescent protein) reporter gene. These cells were transplanted into lethally irradiated C57B1/6 mice. In fully reconstituted animals, GFP expression was observed in 8.0% of peripheral blood mononuclear cells for 20 weeks posttransplantation. Lineage analysis demonstrated that a similar percentage (approximately 8.0%) of GFP-positive cells was detected in peripheral blood B cells, T cells, granulocytes and monocytes, bone marrow erythroid precursor cells, splenic B cells, and thymic T cells. In secondary transplant recipients, up to 20% of some lineages expressed GFP. Our results suggest that quiescent, hematopoietic stem cells are efficiently transduced by lentiviral vectors without impairing self-renewal and normal lineage specification in vivo. Efficient gene delivery into murine stem cells with lentiviral vectors will allow direct tests of genetic therapies in mouse models of hematopoietic diseases such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia, in which corrected cells may have a selective survival advantage.