Probiotics have beneficial effects on the gut in numerous conditions. The purpose of this paper is to present a review of the current literature on probiotics used in chronic illnesses exhibiting similar pathology seen in HIV gut dysfunction, in order to make recommendations for their use to promote and restore healing of the gut with subsequent reduction of ongoing inflammation caused by microbial translocation. A review of the literature was performed, focusing on probiotics as an intervention to improve gut health. Key words were searched in PubMed and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature. The literature reviewed was limited to clinical trials, meta-analyses, and practice guidelines. The review provided evidence that probiotics were supportive in modulating aspects of gut physiology, barrier integrity, and immune function. Probiotic use is a supportive adjunct therapy, worthy of consideration and further research in persons infected with HIV. © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care.