Introduction: Surfactant-associated proteins (SPs) play a crucial role in the innate defense system and serve as the initial step in the immune response to inhaled pathogens. SP-A and SP-D expression and function are altered in a variety of inflammatory and infectious diseases of the lungs, such as asthma, allergies, and cystic fibrosis, but their presence and function in the sinonasal cavity has not been investigated. The objective of this study was to test our hypothesis that SP-A and SP-D are present in the human sinus. Materials and Methods: Sinus mucosal biopsies were performed in 8 patients undergoing endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, pituitary tumors, and cerebrospinal fluid leak repairs. Expression of SP mRNA and protein by the sinus mucosa was detected by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis, respectively. Results: Analyses of mucosal biopsies from these patients revealed the presence of SP-A and SP-D mRNA and protein in all specimens. Conclusion: SP-A and SP-D are expressed in both normal and diseased human sinus tissue. Understanding the role of SPs in diseased and healthy states may elucidate their possible roles in innate immunity in the upper airway and allow us to develop novel treatments for sinonasal pathologies. Copyright © 2007 S. Karger AG.