Batterham et al. report that the gut peptide hormone PYY3-36 decreases food intake and body-weight gain in rodents, a discovery that has been heralded as potentially offering a new therapy for obesity. However, we have been unable to replicate their results. Although the reasons for this discrepancy remain undetermined, an effective anti-obesity drug ultimately must produce its effects across a range of situations. The fact that the findings of Batterham et al. cannot easily be replicated calls into question the potential value of an anti-obesity approach that is based on administration of PYY3-36.