The authors developed an animal model of binge eating where history of caloric restriction with footshock stress (R + S) causes rats to consume twice the normal amount of palatable food. The authors tested the hypothesis that binge eating is mediated by changes in opioid control of feeding by comparing rats' anorectic and orexigenic responses to naloxone and butorphanol, respectively, and by testing the ability of butorphanol to elicit binge eating of chow when palatable food was absent. Mu/kappa opioid-receptor blockade and activation had exaggerated responses in the R + S rats with naloxone suppressing binge eating to control levels, and although butorphanol did not trigger chow binge eating, it enhanced binge eating of palatable food. These responses in sated normal-weight rats strengthen evidence that reward, over metabolic need, drives binge eating. Copyright 2005 by the American Psychological Association.