Despite advances in combination Antiretroviral Therapy (cART), adults with HIV continue to experience cognitive impairments. In addition to these cognitive impairments, research suggests as many as 40% and 20% of adults with HIV are diagnosed with depression and anxiety, respectively. The impact of these cognitive and emotional deficits increases caregiver burden, impairs occupational and driving performance, contributes to poor emotional processing, increases cognitive complaints, and reduces quality of life. Fortunately, cognitive remediation therapy improves targeted cognitive abilities along with general cognitive processes. Speed of processing training, a type of cognitive remediation therapy, has been shown to improve cognitive performance on measures of visual attention, speed of processing, and timed-task performances. Furthermore, studies suggest that speed of processing training could also enhance neuromodulatory systems which have direct implications for improving mood functions (depression and anxiety). The benefits of the improvement in these cognitive and emotional systems are a decrease or slowing in cognitive decline along with the potential to protect against clinically significant depressive symptoms. Studies support the need for deeper investigation into the short-term and long-term benefits of speed of processing training as a behavioral adjunct for the pharmacologically-burdened HIV population.