Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis (CRS/NP) is a medical disease that is managed more effectively after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Despite topical treatment with intranasal steroids, acute inflammatory exacerbations (AEs) are common and are typically treated with oral prednisone, which has significant and well-documented side effects. The objective of the current study was to critically evaluate the topical application of triamcinolone acetonide (80) in carboxymethylcellulose (TA/CMC) foam for AEs in CRS/NP patients after ESS. Methods: CRS/NP patients managed with ESS by a single rhinologist over a 5-year period were included in the study. Data were reviewed regarding demographics, number of AEs, revision surgery, 22-item Sino-Nasal Outcomes Test (SNOT-22) scores, frequency of oral prednisone and/or TA/CMC, and notable side effects. Results: A total of 371 CRS/NP patients were treated with ESS over a 5-year period. Mean follow-up was 49.3 weeks (range, 2-249 weeks). During this time period, 130 patients (46 years; range, 28-48 years) developed a cumulative 267 AEs. Before initiating use of TA/CMC in 2010, 66 AEs were treated with prednisone. Subsequently, 116 of 201 AEs were managed with TA/CMC with a sequential decrease in prednisone use over the last 3 years (77, 39, and 32%). SNOT-22 scores (n=33) decreased significantly after TA/CMC instillation (preinstillation, 1.69 ± 0.86, versus postinstillation, 1.23 ± 0.8; p < 0.01). Conclusion: Management of AEs with TA/CMC decreased overall prednisone use in a large population of CRS/NP patients in this retrospective evaluation. TA/CMC appears well tolerated and is a useful treatment option for AEs in postoperative CRS/NP patients. Copyright © 2014, OceanSide Publications, Inc.