A composite graft that combines a synthetic scaffold with osteoprogenitor cells from bone marrow aspirate (BMA) may potentially deliver the advantages of autogenous bone grafts without the procurement morbidity. Sixty consecutive patients with cavitary bone defects were treated with a composite of β-tricalcium phosphate β-TCP), Vitoss (Orthovita, Malvern, Pennsylvania), and BMA. The cavitary defects were measured on orthogonal views by experienced musculoskeletal radiologists. Radiographically, resorption and trabeculation increased steadily with time. This differential was slightly more noticeable in large defects with a central trabeculation occurring in advance of the peripheral region. The majority of patients progressed to unrestricted activities by 6 weeks and had returned to their usual activities by 12 weeks. No significant difference in graft incorporation rate was noted based on age, size of defect, or use of adjuvant local treatment. The use of a composite graft (ultraporous β-TCP+BMA) in the treatment of cavitary lesions appears to be safe and effective. Copyright © 2009 SLACK Incorporated. All rights reserved.