IMPORTANCE: Current guidelines for delaying surgery after coronary stent placement are based on stent type. However, the indication for the stent may be an important risk factor for postoperative major adverse cardiac events (MACE). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the clinical indication for a coronary stent is associated with postoperativeMACE. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective cohort study in patients at US Veterans Affairs hospitals who had a coronary stent placed between January 1, 2000, and December 31, 2010, and underwent noncardiac surgery within the following 24 months. The association between the indication for stent and postoperativeMACE rates was examined using logistic regression to control for patient and procedure factors. EXPOSURES: Three subgroups of stent indication were examined: (1)myocardial infarction (MI); (2) unstable angina; and (3) revascularization not associated with acute coronary syndrome (non-ACS). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Composite 30-day postoperativeMACE rates including all-cause mortality, MI, or revascularization. RESULTS: Among 26 661 patients (median [IQR] age, 68 [61.0-76.0] years; 98.4%male; 88.1%white) who underwent 41 815 surgical procedures within 24 months following coronary stent placement, the stent indication wasMI in 32.8%of the procedures, unstable angina in 33.8%, and non-ACS in 33.4%. PostoperativeMACE rates were significantly higher in the MI group (7.5%) compared with the unstable angina (2.7%) and non-ACS (2.6%) groups (P < .001). When surgery was performed within 3 months of percutaneous coronary intervention, adjusted odds of MACE were significantly higher in the MI group compared with the non-ACS group (odds ratio [OR] = 5.25; 95%CI, 4.08-6.75). This risk decreased over time, although it remained significantly higher at 12 to 24 months from percutaneous coronary intervention (OR = 1.95; 95%CI, 1.58-2.40). The adjusted odds of MACE for the unstable angina group were similar to those for the non-ACS group when surgery was performed within 3 months (OR = 1.11; 95%CI, 0.80-1.53) or between 12 and 24 months (OR = 1.08; 95% CI, 0.86-1.37) from stent placement. Stent type was not significantly associated with MACE regardless of indication. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Surgery in patients with a coronary stent placed forMI was associated with increased postoperativeMACE rates compared with other stent indications. The risk declined over time from PCI, and delaying surgery up to 6 months in this cohort of patients with stents may be important regardless of stent type.