© 2016 Background Despite hospital readmission being a targeted quality metric, few studies have focused on the surgical patient population. We performed a systematic review of transitional care interventions and their effect on hospital readmissions after surgery. Data Sources PubMed was searched for studies evaluating transitional care interventions in surgical populations within the years 1995 to 2015. Of 3,527 abstracts identified, 3 randomized controlled trials and 7 observational cohort studies met inclusion criteria. Conclusions Discharge planning programs reduced readmissions by 11.5% (P =.001), 12.5% (P =.04), and 23% (P =.26). Patient education interventions reduced readmissions by 14% (P =.28) and 23.5% (P <.05). Primary care follow-up reduced readmissions by 8.3% for patients after high-risk surgeries (P <.001). Home visits reduced readmissions by 7.69% (P =.023) and 4% (P =.161), respectively. Therefore, improving discharge planning, patient education, and follow-up communication may reduce readmissions.