Studies have shown that following bacterial infection or endotoxin administration, immune functions are regulated differently in mice of different genetic background. Since the susceptibility to sepsis following trauma-hemorrhage is dependant on the severity of injury, it is important to determine whether genetic background of the animal influence immune functions after trauma-hemorrhage. The aim of our studies, therefore, was to assess differences in the immune functions in genetically different strains of age-matched C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 male mice following trauma-hemorrhage. The analysis for immune functions included: proliferation of splenocyte and bone-marrow cells, IL-2 and IFN-γ release by splenocytes, and TNF-α and IL-10 release by splenic, peritoneal, liver (Kupffer cell), and bone-marrow macrophages. The results show significant differences in splenocyte and bone-marrow functions, and in the release of the mediators of immune function by immune competent cells: (a) between the two genetic strains, and (b) in each mouse strain following trauma-hemorrhage. Thus, genetic background appears to significantly influence the severity of immune responses in males following trauma-hemorrhage. © 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.