Branched-chain amino acid metabolon: Interaction of glutamate dehydrogenase with the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm)

Academic Article

Abstract

  • The catabolic pathway for branched-chain amino acids includes deamination followed by oxidative decarboxylation of the deaminated product branched-chain α-keto acids, catalyzed by the mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm) and branched-chain α-keto acid dehydrogenase enzyme complex (BCKDC). We found that BCATm binds to the E1 decarboxylase of BCKDC, forming a metabolon that allows channeling of branched-chain α-keto acids from BCATm to E1. The protein complex also contains glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH1), 4-nitrophenylphosphatase domain and non-neuronal SNAP25-like protein homolog 1, pyruvate carboxylase, and BCKDC kinase. GDH1 binds to the pyridoxamine 5′-phosphate (PMP) form of BCATm (PMP-BCATm) but not to the pyridoxal 5′-phosphate-BCATm and other metabolon proteins. Leucine activates GDH1, and oxidative deamination of glutamate is increased further by addition of PMP-BCATm. Isoleucine and valine are not allosteric activators of GDH1, but in the presence of 5′-phosphate-BCATm, they convert BCATm to PMP-BCATm, stimulating GDH1 activity. Sensitivity to ADP activation of GDH1 was unaffected by PMP-BCATm; however, addition of a 3 or higher molar ratio of PMP-BCATm to GDH1 protected GDH1 from GTP inhibition by 50%. Kinetic results suggest that GDH1 facilitates regeneration of the form of BCATm that binds to E1 decarboxylase of the BCKDC, promotes metabolon formation, branched-chain amino acid oxidation, and cycling of nitrogen through glutamate. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
  • Published In

    Digital Object Identifier (doi)

    Pubmed Id

  • 18453604
  • Author List

  • Islam MM; Nautiyal M; Wynn RM; Mobley JA; Chuang DT; Hutson SM
  • Start Page

  • 265
  • End Page

  • 276
  • Volume

  • 285
  • Issue

  • 1