Background: Tight junctions play an essential role in the maintenance of endothelial barrier function. Results: 15(S)-HETE stimulated ZO-1 phosphorylation at Thr-770/772 residues in PKC-dependent MEK1-ERK1/2 activation disrupting endothelial tight junctions and barrier function. Conclusion: PKC by interrupting ZO-1 and occludin interactions plays a role in 15(S)-HETE-induced endothelial TJ disruption. Significance: 12/15-Lipoxygenase appears to be a crucial player in the modulation of endothelial barrier permeability. Disruption of tight junctions (TJs) perturbs endothelial barrier function and promotes inflammation. Previously, we have shown that 15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HETE), the major 15-lipoxygenase 1 (15-LO1) metabolite of arachidonic acid, by stimulating zona occludens (ZO)-2 tyrosine phosphorylation and its dissociation from claudins 1/5, induces endothelial TJ disruptionandits barrier dysfunction. Here,wehave studied the role of serine/threonine phosphorylation of TJ proteins in 15(S)-HETE-induced endothelial TJ disruption and its barrier dysfunction. We found that 15(S)-HETE enhances ZO-1 phosphorylation at Thr-770/772 residues via PKe-mediated MEK1- ERK1/2 activation, causing ZO-1 dissociation from occludin, disrupting endothelial TJs and its barrier function, and promoting monocyte transmigration; these effects were reversed by T770A/T772A mutations. In the arteries of WT mice ex vivo, 15(S)-HETE also induced ZO-1 phosphorylation and endothelial TJ disruption in a PKCe and MEK1-ERK1/2-dependent manner. In line with these observations, in WT mice high fat diet feeding induced 12/15-lipoxygenase (12/15-LO) expression in the endothelium and caused disruption of its TJs and barrier function. However, in 12/15-LO-/- mice, high fat diet feeding did not cause disruption of endothelial TJs and barrier function. These observations suggest that the 12/15-LO-12/15(S)-HETE axis, in addition to tyrosine phosphorylation of ZO-2, also stimulates threonine phosphorylation of ZO-1 in the mediation of endothelial TJ disruption and its barrier dysfunction.© 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.