Virtually all malignant gliomas recur. Treatment options at recurrence have relied upon surgical intervention, radiation therapy or cytotoxic chemotherapy. Unfortunately, none are associated with significant improvements in survival. Advances in treatment options at recurrence have been dependent upon the combination of surgical resection, focal radiation and chemotherapy. Despite aggressive interventions, few patients have meaningful improvements. Current research focuses on novel targeted molecular therapy that will hopeful be able to take advantage of advances in our understanding of the biology of glial neoplasms. © 2005 Future Drugs Ltd.