An 18-month-old white male infant with X-linked lymphoproliferative disease was evaluated for persistent hepatic dysfunction following primary Epstein-Barr virus infection. A liver biopsy revealed cirrhosis with a dense mononuclear cell infiltrate. These findings were confounding because cirrhosis is not a typical finding in either normal or immunodeficient individuals following infection with Epstein-Barr virus. An alpha 1-antitrypsin level obtained shortly after biopsy was spuriously within the lower limits of the physiologic range. Further investigation demonstrated a homozygous Z phenotype, the classic protease inhibitor variant described in alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency. A repeat liver biopsy confirmed the presence of a second hereditary disease. This is a unique concurrence of two uncommon genetic disorders.