Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a heterogeneous array of motor and non-motor features. Anti-PD drugs that are in use target only the motor symptoms, may lose efficacy over time, and can cause serious adverse effects such as dyskinesia and psychosis. There are currently no preventative or disease modifying treatments. All attempts to develop disease modifying drugs have failed. Pharmacogenomics (PGx) has the potential to change the way new drugs are developed and the way drugs are prescribed. By using genetic markers that correlate with, and can therefore predict drug response, clinical trials can be designed to be enriched with individuals who are most likely to benefit from the drug, maximizing drug's efficacy, minimizing its adverse effects, and boosting the odds of successful drug discovery. Clinical application of PGx will help physicians to quickly and accurately determine the right drugs and the right doses for individuals, avoiding the lengthy trial and error approaches and adverse effects. In combination with known protective factors such as nicotine and caffeine, PGx may enable development of personalized methods for PD prevention and, by extension, care. © 2013 The American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics, Inc.