Recurrent benign lymphocytic meningitis is a recurring, typically innocuous, painful form of aseptic meningitis. This syndrome is associated with transient neurological symptoms in one-half of afflicted patients. The causative agent is usually herpes simplex virus type 2, which can be confirmed by detection of viral DNA in the cerebrospinal fluid using polymerase chain reaction. Clinical disease resolves spontaneously; however, acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famciclovir have been administered to some patients for both episodic therapy and suppression of recurrences. This therapy is thought to be beneficial, although there is no controlled trial data to support efficacy and safety. © 2006 by the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.