The phylogenetic utility of the IS1167 insertion sequence was examined with restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of a sample of 50, predominantly invasive, capsular serotype 6B Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates previously characterized by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). The strains represented a genetically diverse assemblage of 34 distinct clonotypes composed of 26 restriction fragment types and 23 multilocus enzyme types. All isolates carried the IS1167 insertion sequence, with an average of 9.5 copies. The cross-classification of isolates based on RFLP and MLEE typing schemes was 81% concordant. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a significant (P < 0.0001) association between strains of a given RFLP lineage with those of a given MLEE lineage. A significant correlation (P < 0.00004) was also found between the proportion of restriction fragments shared by any given pair of isolates and their genetic distances estimated from the MLEE data. Parity between the two genetic markers implied that the sampled isolates were in linkage disequilibrium. The existence of nonrandom associations among genetic loci was confirmed by Monte Carlo analyses of the MLEE data. These studies, thus, demonstrated that invasive pneumococcal isolates of a single capsule type recovered on a regional scale can retain a largely clonal population structure over a period of 8 years. The ability to detect linkage disequilibrium and generate relatively congruent dendrograms based on distance and parsimony methods suggested that the restriction fragment data were robust to phylogenetic analysis.