The disulfide-linked glycoprotein B (gB; gp55-116) complex of human cytomegalovirus represents the most abundant and immunogenic component of the virion envelope. We have studied the oligomerization and transport of this molecule, using a series of murine monoclonal antibodies. Our results indicated that oligomerization of this molecule occurred shortly after its synthesis, with a half-time of maximal formation of approximately 25 min. The oligomeric form had an estimated mass of 340,000 Da and likely consisted of a homodimer of the gp55-116 complex. By using a conformation-specific monoclonal antibody, postoligomerization folding of this molecule was demonstrated. This event exhibited an unusually prolonged half-maximal time of approximately 160 min. Both oligomerization and folding occurred in the endoplasmic reticulum. Oligomerization and folding occurred in the absence of carbohydrate modifications, although likely at lower efficiency. Finally, the oligomeric and folded forms were shown to be transported to the surface of infected cells and infectious virions.