BACKGROUND. Several studies report coexistent or subsequent primary tumors (SPT) among patients with malignant melanoma (MM), with the rate of incidence ranging from 1.5-20% depending on the sample size and the length and completeness of follow-up. METHODS. The authors followed a cohort of patients with cutaneous MM who were diagnosed and treated at the City of Hope National Medical Center to determine the incidence rate of SPT and associated risk factors. Five hundred eighty-five patients (median age at diagnosis, 43 years) were diagnosed and treated for MM between 1952 and 1996 and followed for a median of 6.5 years (range, 0.0-37.0 years). Ninety-six percent of the cohort had been treated by surgery alone. RESULTS. Thirty-seven patients developed an SPT. These included skin cancers (n = 23), carcinoma of the urinary bladder, breast carcinoma, and lymphoma (n = 3 each), lung carcinoma and prostate carcinoma (n = 2 each), and cervical carcinoma (n = 1). The estimated cumulative rate of incidence after MM was 5% at 5 years for any SPT, 3.7% for a second skin cancer, and 1.1% for a second solid tumor. Overall, the current cohort of MM patients was found to be at an increased risk for developing a subsequent melanoma (standardized incidence ratio [SIR], 4.5; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.2-10.0) when compared with the general population. Older men (age > 50 years at the time of diagnosis of MM) were at an increased risk of developing subsequent bladder carcinoma (SIR, 6.4; 95% Cl, 1.2-15.7). CONCLUSIONS. Patients diagnosed with MM are at an increased risk of developing subsequent MM and bladder carcinoma. Issues to be addressed in future studies include interactions between environmental exposures and genetic susceptibility and the identification of individuals at increased risk.