The glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes are involved in the metabolism of environmental carcinogens and of some classes of chemotherapy drugs. GSTM1 and GSTT1 genotypes are polymorphic in humans, and the phenotypic absence of enzyme activity is caused by a homozygous inherited deletion of the gene. Previous, smaller studies of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) provided contrasting data on the role of the GST genotype in susceptibility and treatment outcomes. We analyzed GST genotypes in 710 children with ALL treated by the Children's Cancer Group. Frequencies were compared with those of normal controls, and outcomes were analyzed according to genotype. Comparisons of gene frequencies in ALL case and control patients showed similar frequencies (54% vs 53% GSTM1 null in whites, P = .9; 40% versus 32% in blacks, P = .45; 16% versus 15% GSTT1 null in whites, P = .8; 17% versus 28% in blacks, P = .3). ALL was not associated with the GSTM1-null genotype or the double-null genotype in blacks or whites, in contrast to previous reports. Stratification of cases by age at diagnosis, sex, white blood cell count at diagnosis, B or T lineage, or cytogenetics revealed no differences in genotype frequencies. Analysis of treatment outcomes showed no differences in outcome according to GST genotype; in particular, there were no differences in frequencies of relapse at any site. These data, representing a larger series than any reported previously, suggest that GST genotype does not affect etiology or outcome of childhood ALL. © 2002 by The American Society of Hematology.