OBJECTIVE: This study was performed to compare the cost-effectiveness of strategies for the management of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, grades 2 and 3 (CIN 2 and CIN 3). STUDY DESIGN: A decision analysis compared six management strategies. The model was applied to hypothetic cohorts of 100,000 patients with CIN 2 and CIN 3. RESULTS: In both analyses, cryotherapy (CRYO) was the least expensive and least effective strategy; total vaginal hysterectomy was the most expensive and most effective strategy. For CIN 2, loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP) was more effective than CRYO but at a cost of $31,437 per additional cure and $1.8 million per additional cancer prevented. For CIN 3, LEEP was more effective than CRYO, but at a cost of $17,592 per additional cure and $1.0 million per additional cancer prevented. CONCLUSION: CRYO is a cost-effective strategy that is appropriate in resource-poor settings. LEEP is also cost-effective, but the improved efficacy compared with CRYO comes at a significant cost. Total vaginal hysterectomy is very effective but is economically unsound because of excessively high costs.