Objectives: We evaluated the indications and outcomes of patients with known gynecologic malignancies that underwent video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) and pleurodesis for malignant pleural effusion. Methods: After IRB approval was obtained, a retrospective study of patients with gynecologic malignancies who underwent planned VATS/pleurodesis between 1/2000 and 7/2010 was performed. Abstracted data included demographics, diagnosis, disease status, treatment history, indication for VATS, complications, and outcomes. Results: Forty-two patients with a gynecologic malignancy underwent VATS/pleurodesis. Median age was 63 years. Twenty-nine patients (69%) had ovarian cancer. Fifty-seven percent had recurrent disease at the time of VATS and 57% were undergoing chemotherapy at the time of VATS. Eight patients (19%) underwent perioperative VATS to improve pulmonary status. Seven patients (17%) underwent a palliative VATS. The median length of stay was 7 days (range 1-53). Sixty-two percent had gross disease noted at the time of VATS. A mean of 1650 cc of fluid was drained at time of surgery (range 300-4500), and the majority (88%) of patients had a talc pleurodesis performed. Seven patients (17%) were readmitted within 30 days; 6 were for complications unrelated to their VATS. One patient was readmitted with hospital-acquired pneumonia and died during readmission. Median time to death after VATS was 104 days (range 4-1062). Patients who underwent a perioperative VATS had the longest survival (845 days). Conclusion: Patients with gynecologic malignancies may require a VATS/pleurodesis for symptomatic pleural effusions. This procedure appears to be safe and effective in this patient population. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.